Director of Innovation and Transfer at Cima Universidad de Navarra. Researcher of the Gene Therapy and Regulation of Gene Expression Program, Universidad de Navarra, SPAIN
CRISPR/Cas9 wt and nickase mediated glycolate oxidase disruption is an efficacious and safe treatment for primary hyperoxaluria type I
Host: A. Muro
Host: A. Muro
CRISPR/Cas9 technology offers novel approaches for the development of new therapies for many unmet clinical needs, including a significant number of inherited monogenic diseases. However, in vivo correction of disease- causing genes is still inefficient, especially for those diseases without selective advantage for corrected cells. We reasoned that substrate reduction therapies (SRT) targeting non-essential enzymes could provide an attractive alternative. Here we evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of an in vivo CRISPR/Cas9-mediated SRT to treat primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1), a rare inborn dysfunction in glyoxylate metabolism that results in excessive hepatic oxalate production causing end-stage renal disease. A single systemic administration of an AAV8-CRISPR/Cas9 vector targeting glycolate oxidase, prevents oxalate overproduction and kidney damage, with no signs of toxicity in Agxt1-/- mice. Our results reveal that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated SRT represents a promising therapeutic option for PH1 that can be potentially applied to other metabolic diseases caused by the accumulation of toxic metabolites.
However, the therapeutic use of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-mediated gene disruption using CRISPR-Cas9 is limited by potential off-target modifications and the risk of uncontrolled integration of vector genomes into CRISPR-mediated double-strands breaks. To address these concerns, we explored the use of AAV-delivered paired Staphylococcus aureus nickases (D10ASaCas9) to target the Hao1 gene for the treatment of Primary Hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). Our study demonstrated effective Hao1 gene disruption, a significant decrease in glycolate oxidase expression, and a therapeutic effect in PH1 mice. The assessment of undesired genetic modifications through CIRCLE-seq and CAST-Seq analyses revealed neither off-target activity nor chromosomal translocations. Importantly, the use of paired-D10ASaCas9 resulted in a significant reduction in AAV integration at the target site compared to SaCas9 nuclease. Additionally, our study highlights the limitations of current analytical tools in characterizing modifications introduced by paired Cas9 nickases, necessitating the development of a new pipeline for more accurate characterization. These results describe a positive advance towards a safe and effective potential long-term treatment for PH1 patients.
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